Objectives and Methodology


  1. To provide tourism policy and decision makers, planners and members of the tourism and hospitality industry with up-to-date, regular and insightful information regarding the profile of visitors to Macao and how they evolve over time.

  2. To supplement general visitor (tourism) data currently provided by the Macao Census and Statistics Department (DSEC), MGTO and the Immigration Service by:

    • Providing greater detail and analysis of behavioral and psychological variables.

    • Providing cross tabulated data analysis and presentation of practical use to managers and decision makers in both government and private organizations.

  3. To provide a source of reference and information archive over time of the short- and long-term changes to the mix of visitors to Macao.

  4. To provide reference data to help evaluate the impact and effectiveness of destination management and marketing efforts.



Data for the Macao Visitor Profile comes from field surveys of visitors conducted over a 9-day period every quarter. Each survey date targeted a sample size of about 114 visitors who completed at least half of their visit at the time of interview. Interview locations included major sites and terminals including the Border Gate, Ruins of St. Paul’s, Rua do Cunha at Taipa, Senado Square, Hong Kong Macao Ferry Terminal and Macao International Airport. The target final annaul sample will consist of aboiut 4,000 visitors. The VPS seeks information from visitors primarily on (1) their purpose and reasons for visiting Macao, (2) their trip and travel characteristics, (3) travel and transportation arrangements, (4) accommodation arrangements, (5) major information source, (6) spending behavior, (7) visitor attractions visited, (8) gaming behavior, and (9) evaluation of their overall travel experience.




Data collection

Data is collected via field survey twice a year, in June and December. Interviews take place in major transportation hubs in Macao as well as several residential areas. Respondents are selected following a systematic random sampling technique and interviews are conducted face-to-face with the help of a structured questionnaire. Interviews are conducted in either English or Chinese. Respondents are interviewed if they are permanent, non-permanent residents, or hold non-resident worker’s permit, and are employed full-time in Macao at the time of the survey. The targeted sample size every year is 1,050.

Definition, source, and measurement of key variables monitored

The following four variables are monitored yearly (since 2012). Other variables are added as needs and trends dictate, and are subject to feedback from colleagues in industry, academia, and policymakers.

  • Job satisfaction is measured using the JDS scale (Hackman & Oldham, 1974) and is composed of the average of three survey items: “Generally speaking, I am very satisfied with my current job”, “I am generally satisfied with the kind of work I do in my current job”, and “I frequently think of quitting my current job” (reverse coded). 
  • Perceived fairness of compensation and benefits is measured using a two-item scale developed by Mount & Bartlett (2002). The two items are:  “Compared to similar companies in my industry, I am paid fairly for the work I do,” and “Compared to similar companies in my industry, the benefits I receive at my company are fair.” 
  • Intent-to-stay (ISS) is measured using a scale developed by Hunt, Osborn & Martin (1981) and is assessed as the average level of agreement with four survey items: “I will definitely leave this organization in the next year”, “It is very unlikely that I would ever consider leaving this company”, “If I were completely free to choose, I would prefer very much not to continue working for this organization”, and “It is very important for me to spend my career in this organization.” ISS can be considered a proxy for employee loyalty (though it has other dimensions as well) and may be able to predict short- to medium-term turnover levels at organizations. 
  • Work stress is measured using the job stress scale (JSS) developed by Lambert, Hogan, Camp & Ventura (2006)  and is assessed as the average of respondents’ level of agreement with four survey items: “A lot of time my job makes me very frustrated or angry”, “I am usually under a lot of pressure when I am at work”, “When I’m at work I often feel tense or uptight”, “I am usually calm and at ease when I am working” (reverse coded), and “There are a lot of aspects of my job that make me upset.” 

Response scale

Respondents’ level of agreement is captured using a 5-point Likert scale with 5 indicating strong agreement and 1 indicating strong disagreement. The higher the score, the higher level is the job satisfaction, perceived fairness of compensation and benefits, intention to stay and job stress. All scales reported in the charts correspond to this 5-point agreement scale, unless otherwise indicated.

Survey respondents characteristics

Demographic and job characteristics of survey respondents for 2014 and 2015 waves are reported in the Table M1 below.  All analyses in the regular MHRM general report are weight-adjusted by industry based on the relative distribution of the working population in Macao reported annually by the Macao Census and Statistics Department. 


Table M1

Survey respondent characteristics (Weighted sample)